Policies of the Arctic States
and the European Union – Documents

3.1 USA

3.1.1 USA National Security Presidential Directive on Arctic Region Policy
US National Security Presidential Directive on Arctic Region Policy, January 9, 2009, published by Federation of American Scientists (FAS)
Source: http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/nspd/nspd-66.htm

3.1.2 Congressional Research Service - Changes in the Arctic
Congressional Research Service: Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress, written by Ronald O´Rourke, Coordinator, Specialist in Naval Affairs, October 2010, published by Federation of American Scientists (FAS)
Source: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R41153.pdf

3.2 Canada

3.2.1 Canada´s Northern Strategy
Canada´s Northern Strategy, published by the Government of Canada, 2009
Source: http://www.northernstrategy.gc.ca/cns/cns.pdf

3.2.2 Statement on Canada´s Arctic Foreign Policy, Address by Minister Larence Cannon
Canada´s Arctic Foreign Policy Statement, address by Foreign Affairs Minister Lawrence Cannon, August 20, 2010, Ottawa
Source: http://www.international.gc.ca/media/aff/speeches-discours/2010/2010-057.aspx?lang=eng&view=d

Challenges for
Canadas´s Arctic Policy
Ottawa, September 2012. Since the creation of the Arctic Council in 1996 all eight member states have served as chair, starting with Canada from 1997 to 1999. Now Canada will assume the chair again from 2013 to 2013. “As melting sea-ice opens the region to shipping and resource extraction, the Arctic Council has become essential; if it did not exist, it would have to be created”, writes Michael Byers in his report "Circumpolar Challenges" for the Rideau Institute in Ottawa. The Munk-Gordon Arctic Security Program put forward suggestions for Canada´s chairmanship.
→ Circumpolar Challenges
→ Canada as an Arctic Power

3.3 Denmark

3.3 Denmark - Strategy for the Arctic 2011-2020
Kingdom of Denmark – Strategy for the Arctic 2011 -2020
Source: http://um.dk/en/~/media/UM/English-site/Documents/Politics-and-diplomacy/Arktis_Rapport_UK_210x270_Final_Web.ashx

3.4 Finland

3.4 Finland´s Strategy for the Arctic Region
Finland´s Strategy for the Arctic Region
Source: http://www.vnk.fi/julkaisukansio/2010/j07-suomen-arktinen-08-finlands-strategy/pdf/en.pdf

3.5 Iceland

3.5 Iceland´s Arctic Policy
A Parliamentary Resolution on Iceland´s Arctic Policy, March 28, 2011
Source: http://www.mfa.is/media/nordurlandaskrifstofa/A-Parliamentary-Resolution-on-ICE-Arctic-Policy-approved-by-Althingi.pdf

3.6 Norway

3.6.1 Norway´s High North Strategy 2006
Norway´s High Arctic Strategy 2006
Source: http://www.regjeringen.no/upload/UD/Vedlegg/strategien.pdf

3.6.2 Norway - The next step 2009
Norway – The next step 2009
Source: http://www.regjeringen.no/upload/UD/Vedlegg/Nordområdene/new_building_blocks_in_the_north.pdf

3.6.3 Norway´s North Strategy - German Summary
German Summary
Source: http://www.regjeringen.no/upload/UD/Vedlegg/strategity.pdf

3.7 Sweden

3.7 Sweden´s strategy for the Arctic region 2011
Sweden´s strategy for the Arctic region
Source: http://www.regeringen.se/content/1/c6/16/78/59/3baa039d.pdf

3.8 European Union and the Arctic

EU documents 2006 to 2011

3.8.1 Mitteilung der EU-Kommission Die Europäische Union und die Arktis
Mitteilung der Kommission an das Europäische Parlament und den Rat "Die Europäische Union und die Arktis", Brüssel 20. Nov. 2008, veröffentlicht von Eur-Lex
Source: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2008:0763:FIN:DE:PDF

3.8.2 EU Commission Communication The European Union and the Arctic Region
Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council "The European Union and the Arctic Region", Brussels 20. Nov. 2008
Source: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2008:0763:FIN:EN:PDF

3.8.3 Council Conclusions on Arctic Issues Dec. 2009
Council of the European Union, Conclusion on Arctic Issues, Brussels 8. Dec. 2009, published by the European Commission
Source: http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/pdf/arctic_council_conclusions_09_en.pdf

3.8.4 European Parliament Resolution of 20 January 2011 on EU policy for the High North
European Parliament Resolution of 20. January 2011 on a sustainable EU policy for the High North (2009/2214(INI)
Source: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+TA+P7-TA-2011-0024+0+DOC+XML+V0//EN

3.8.5 EU Policy on indigenous Arctic people
EU Policy on indigenous Arctic peoples
Source: https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/maritimeforum/content/1833

3.8.6 Northern Dimension Policy Overview
Northern Dimension Policy Overview - the EU, Norway, Iceland and the Russian Federation, published by the European External Action Service (EEAS)
Source: http://www.eeas.europa.eu/north_dim/index_en.htm

3.8.7 Political Declaration on the Northern Dimension Policy
Northern Dimension: Political Declaration, Helsinki Nov. 2006, published by the European External Action Service (EEAS)
Source: http://eeas.europa.eu/north_dim/docs/pol_dec_1106_en.pdf

3.8.8 Northern Dimension Policy Framework
Northern Dimension: Policy Framework Document, Helsinki Nov. 2006, published by the European External Action Service (EEAS)
Source: http://eeas.europa.eu/north_dim/docs/frame_pol_1106_en.pdf

3.8.9 Northern Dimension - Canadian description of EU policy
Northern Dimension/Canadian description of EU policy, published by Foreign Affairs Canada
Source: http://www.international.gc.ca/polar-polaire/nd_pol_1106.aspx?lang=en

EU documents 2012 - Knowledge, Responsibility and Engagement: The EU policy for the Arctic

3.8.10 European Commission and the High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy: Joint Communication to the European Parliament and the Council: Developing a European Union Policy towards the Arctic Region: progress since 2008 and next steps, Brussels, June 26, 2012

3.8.11 Joint staff working document: The inventory of activities in the framework of developing a European Union Arctic Policy, Brüssel, 26. Juni 2012

3.8.12 Joint staff working document: Space and the Arctic, Brüssel, 26. Juni 2012


3.9 Russia

Overview Russian Arctic strategy:
Source: http://www.geopoliticsnorth.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=84&Itemid=69&limitstart=2

Russian Arctic strategy (in Russian only)
Source: http://www.scrf.gov.ru/documents/98.html